Burnett quickly decided to withdraw in the face of superior German firepower; his ships were armed with 6 in (150 mm) guns, while Admiral Hipper and Lützow carried 20.3 cm (8.0 in) and 28 cm (11 in) guns, respectively. Here, she would be ready to attack Allied merchant traffic in the event of a general war following the attack on Poland. [2], Admiral Graf Spee's primary armament was six 28 cm (11 in) SK C/28 guns mounted in two triple gun turrets, one forward and one aft of the superstructure. Lützow's forward gun turret was hit by one of the 15 cm rounds, which disabled the center gun and damaged the right barrel. Aware that surprise had been lost, the Germans broke off the surface attack and turned the destruction of PQ-17 over to the U-boats and Luftwaffe. The prize crew recovered secret documents containing shipping route information. The cruisers engaged Admiral Hipper, which had been firing to port at the destroyer Obedient. [12] She also participated in extensive fleet maneuvers in German waters. [31], Lützow meanwhile steamed toward the convoy from the south, and at 11:42 she opened fire. Pocket battleship definition, a small heavily armed and armored warship serving as a battleship because of limitations imposed by treaty. Burnett's ships approached from Admiral Hipper's starboard side and achieved complete surprise. The German pocket battleships, or Panzerschiffe, struck fear into every navy in the world when they were developed and deployed in the 1930's. [9], Admiral Graf Spee spent the first three months of her career conducting extensive sea trials to ready the ship for service. The German force was strong with the heavy cruiser KMS Admiral Hipper and pocket battleship Lutzow. [32], On 13 April 1945, twenty-four Avro Lancaster bombers attacked Lützow and Prinz Eugen without success due to cloud cover. [38], The wreck was partially broken up in situ in 1942–1943, though parts of the ship were visible for some time after; the wreck lies at a depth of only 11 m (36 ft). The port was attacked by Republican aircraft, though anti-aircraft fire from the warships drove them off. On 15 October, Admiral Graf Spee rendezvoused with Altmark to refuel and transfer prisoners; the following morning, the prize Huntsman joined the two ships. Thats often cited as the reason and may or may no be true but theres also another, more practical reason for the name change. She rendezvoused with Admiral Scheer to take on additional doctors before proceeding to Gibraltar where the dead were buried with full military honors. She ran aground during a planned attack on convoy PQ 17, which necessitated another return to Germany for repairs. Admiral Graf Spee was 186 meters (610 ft) long overall and had a beam of 21.65 m (71 ft) and a maximum draft of 7.34 m (24 ft 1 in). The Deutschland conducted several non-intervention patrols off the coast of Spain during the Civil War (1936-1939). [17] The British crew later reached the Brazilian coast in their lifeboats. She was joined by her newly commissioned sister ship Admiral Scheer for a cruise into the mid-Atlantic, which included a stop in Madeira. [10], On 24 August 1939, a week before the German invasion of Poland, Deutschland set sail from Wilhelmshaven, bound for a position south of Greenland. [21], Shortly before midnight on the night of 8 April, Group 5, with Blücher in the lead, passed the outer ring of Norwegian coastal batteries. The heavy damage forced Lützow and the rest of the squadron to reverse course and exit the fjord. She returned to Norway in early November with a destroyer escort, arriving in Narvik on the 12th. [18] At this time, she was re-rated as a heavy cruiser and renamed Lützow. Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. [10], Following the outbreak of war between Germany and the Allies in September 1939, Adolf Hitler ordered the German Navy to begin commerce raiding against Allied merchant traffic. Believing the British reports, Langsdorff discussed his options with commanders in Berlin. Four days later Admiral Graf Spee's Arado located Booth Steam Ship Co's cargo ship Clement off the coast of Brazil. On 8 October, the following day, she sank Newton Beech,[20] which Langsdorff had been using to house prisoners. This battleship / Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class "Panzerschiff", nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British. She then turned north to the Halifax route, where on 9 October, she encountered the American ship City of Flint. In respect of the Versailles Treaty as amended by the 1922 Washington Agreement, German naval architects had apparently put a quart into a pint pot. This battleship / Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland-class “Panzerschiff”, nicknamed a “pocket battleship” by the British. Four men were wounded. [26], Admiral Graf Spee's Arado floatplane located the merchant ship Doric Star: Langsdorff fired a shot across her bow to stop the ship. Between September and December 1939, the warship sank nine vessels totaling 50,089 gross register tons (GRT), before being confronted by three British cruisers at the Battle of the River Plate on 13 December. [17] Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, the commander in chief of the Kriegsmarine, made the decision to rename the ship, for several reasons. [3] After the completion of fitting out work, initial sea trials began in November 1932. [8], Deutschland on non-intervention patrol in 1938, In May 1937, the ship was docked in the port of Palma on the island of Majorca, along with several other neutral warships, including vessels from the British and Italian navies. They are faster and bulkier, though have weaker artillery compared to higher-tier battleships. Bidlingmaier, Gerhard (1971). Ten days later, however, Hitler ordered the men be exhumed and returned for burial in Germany. The ship participated in a major fleet exercise into the Atlantic with her sister Admiral Graf Spee, the light cruisers Köln, Leipzig, and Nürnberg, and several destroyers, U-boats, and support vessels. [9] The salvage rights were purchased from the German Government by the British, for £14,000, using a Montevideo engineering company as a front. To be singled out in the Wehrmachtbericht was an honor. The British cruisers turned toward Lützow and came under fire from both German cruisers. At 06:20, Exeter returned fire, followed by Ajax at 06:21 and Achilles at 06:24. [2] The ship's top speed was 28.5 knots (52.8 km/h; 32.8 mph), at 54,000 PS (53,260 shp; 39,720 kW). [1] Her keel was laid on 5 February 1929,[2] under construction number 219. [4] As designed, her standard complement consisted of 33 officers and 586 enlisted men, though after 1935 this was significantly increased to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. Repairs necessary to make the ship seaworthy were expected to take up to two weeks. The pocket battleships played an important role in the Second World War at sea – perhaps a disproportionately large role relative to their power and the cost of building and maintaining them. [36][37] On 17 December 1939, Langsdorff ordered the destruction of all important equipment aboard the ship. Their top speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) left only the few battlecruisers in the Anglo-French navies fast enough and powerful enough to sink them.[1]. She made an official visit to Spain following the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War 1939. A third struck her superstructure behind the port-side aircraft crane. By 10 May 1942, the ship was finally pronounced ready for action. In the course of the engagement, Admiral Graf Spee had been hit approximately 70 times; 36 men were killed and 60 more were wounded,[33] including Langsdorff, who had been wounded twice by splinters while standing on the open bridge. [20] Lützow embarked over 400 of the soldiers for the voyage to Norway. 1934 - German pocket battleship "Admiral Scheer" completed 1935 - Under the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Germany was allowed to build a surface fleet up to 35% of British total tonnage. [6], Admiral Graf Spee was ordered by the Reichsmarine from the Reichsmarinewerft shipyard in Wilhelmshaven. Force G was reinforced by the light cruisers Ajax and Achilles; Harwood detached Cumberland to patrol the area off the Falkland Islands while his other three cruisers patrolled off the River Plate. See more. [29] The ship's disguise was removed, so it would not hinder the ship in battle. The ship accidentally started sliding down the slipw… This ship served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The German Navy worked around the Treaty of Versailles limitations to create this special group of steel warships. The ship was partially broken up in situ, though part of the ship remained visible above the surface of the water. [35], Lützow, sunk in the Kaiserfahrt, on 26 April, Hitler was furious over the failure to destroy the convoy, and ordered that all remaining German major warships be broken up for scrap. "G" denoted that the equipment was manufactured by GEMA, "g" indicated that it operated between 335 and 440, "Convention (XIII) concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War", "What should Uruguay do with its Nazi eagle? Langsdorff ordered both vessels to depart at high speed, successfully evading the British cruiser. These were either to break out and seek refuge in Buenos Aires, where the Argentine government would intern the ship, or to scuttle the ship in the Plate estuary. During the deployment, her gun turrets were painted with large black, white, and red bands to aid in identification from the air and indicate her neutral status. The operation was in part being funded by the government of Uruguay, in part by the private sector as the wreck was a hazard to navigation. [30], At 05:30 on the morning of 13 December 1939, lookouts spotted a pair of masts off the ship's starboard bow. Repairs were completed by March 1941, Lützow returned to Norway to join the forces arrayed against Allied shipping to the Soviet Union. The two sister-ships of her class, Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, were reclassified as heavy cruisers in 1940. Deutschland (later renamed Lützow), Admiral Scheer and Admiral Graf Spee were simply termed panzerschiffe (armored ships) by the Germans, but they were known to their opponents by the far more evocative term Pocket Battleships. While replenishing his fuel supplies, Langsdorff ordered superfluous equipment transferred to the Altmark; this included several of the ship's boats, flammable paint, and two of her ten 2 cm anti-aircraft guns, which were installed on the tanker. The closest heavy units—the carrier Ark Royal and battlecruiser Renown—were some 2,500 nmi (4,600 km; 2,900 mi) away, much too far to intervene in the situation. The ships weighed in at 13,200 tons standard, and 14,218 tons under full load. Langsdorff decided not to flee from the British ships, and ordered his ship to battle stations and to close at maximum speed. [2] The ship was launched on 30 June 1934; at her launching, she was christened by the daughter of Admiral Maximilian von Spee, the ship's namesake. She began a brief set of trials starting on 30 October. The ship was also ordered to avoid combat with even inferior naval forces, as commerce disruption was the primary objective. Admiral Scheer was the second of the three Deutschland class heavy cruisers ordered and funded by the Reichsmarine of the Weimar Republic in 1926. [17] In 1940, the ship underwent a major overhaul, during which a raked clipper bow was installed to improve the sea-keeping qualities of the ship. He knew that although Uruguay was neutral, the government was on friendly terms with Britain and if he allowed his ship to be interned, the Uruguayan Navy would allow British intelligence officers access to the ship. Admiral Graf Spee returned to the Atlantic between 17 and 26 November to refuel from Altmark. Group 5 was tasked with capturing Oslo, the capital of Norway, and transported a force of 2,000 mountain troops from the Wehrmacht. [37][39] The multiple explosions from the munitions sent jets of flame high into the air and created a large cloud of smoke that obscured the ship which burned in the shallow water for the next two days. The Kit: This is an excellent little kit, exceeding I believe Tamiya's early waterline efforts. A hit in the bow would also have negatively affected her seaworthiness in the heavy seas of the North Atlantic. The Norwegians, including those manning the guns at the Oscarsborg Fortress were on alert, however. [30] At 06:08, the British spotted Admiral Graf Spee; Harwood divided his ships to split the gunfire of Admiral Graf Spee's 28 cm guns. [24] On 15 November, the ship sank the tanker MV Africa Shell, and the following day, she stopped an unidentified Dutch steamer, though did not sink her. About the … [36] The water was shallow enough that her main deck was still 2 m (6 ft 7 in) above water, permitting her use as a stationary gun battery against advancing Soviet forces. [10] In the summer of 1936, following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she deployed to the Atlantic to participate in non-intervention patrols off the Republican-held coast of Spain. The crew effected emergency repairs that allowed her to return to Germany; repair work in Kiel lasted for six months. At 05:52, however, the ship was identified as HMS Exeter; she was accompanied by a pair of smaller warships, initially thought to be destroyers but quickly identified as Leander-class cruisers. The ship was seized by Norway when she anchored in Haugesund, however, and control of the ship was returned to the original crew. The main battery turrets had 140 mm (5.5 in) thick faces and 80 mm thick sides. Deutschland was the lead ship of her class of heavy cruisers (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The formula adopted was six 11 inch guns in two triple turrets on a cruiser size hull with cruiser level protection and diesel propulsion for extended range. Hildebrand, Hans H.; Röhr, Albert; Steinmetz, Hans-Otto (1993). She was part of the celebrations for the reintegration of the port of Memel into Germany,[11] and a fleet review in honor of Admiral Miklós Horthy, the Regent of Hungary. [15], On 5 October, the British and French navies formed eight groups to hunt down Admiral Graf Spee in the South Atlantic. Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British ships, but she too was damaged, and was forced to put into port at Montevideo, Uruguay. Twenty-four of the convoy's thirty-five transports were sunk. [11], On 5 October, she found and sank the British transport ship Stonegate, though not before the freighter was able to send a distress signal informing vessels in the area of Deutschland's presence. Admiral Graf Spee fired on her again, scored more hits, and forced Exeter to withdraw again, this time with a list to port. [27] Doric Star was able to send out a distress signal before she was sunk, which prompted Harwood to take his three cruisers to the mouth of the River Plate, which he suspected might be Langsdorff's next target. In protest, Raeder resigned; Hitler replaced him with Admiral Karl Dönitz, who persuaded Hitler to rescind the order to dismantle the Kriegmarine's surface ships. [1], The ship also carried a pair of quadruple 53.3 cm (21.0 in) deck-mounted torpedo launchers placed on her stern. She next saw action at the Battle of the Barents Sea with the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, which ended with a failure to destroy the convoy JW 51B. This class of ships were often referred to as "pocket battleship" - vessels smaller than a conventional battleship though bigger than any ocean-going cruiser at the time. The Admiral Hipper-class cruiser Lützow was designated for sale to the Soviet Navy, and it was hoped that the usage of her name for Deutschland would hide the transaction. Steaming into the Oslofjord at a speed of 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), the Germans came into range of the Norwegian guns; the 28 cm, 15 cm and 57 mm guns opened fire on the invaders. The ship's remaining ammunition supply was dispersed throughout the ship, in preparation for scuttling. Vtg Dml Testors Nos 1/700 Factory Sealed Model Kit Double Submarine Uss Dallas. [34], After arriving in port, the wounded crewmen were taken to local hospitals and the dead were buried with full military honors. Lützow followed directly behind the flagship, with Emden astern. The Admiralty complained about the large sum paid for the salvage rights. [7] Deutschland participated in fleet maneuvers in German waters in early 1936. As designed, her standard complement consisted of 33 officers and 586 enlisted men, though after 1935 this was significantly increased to 30 officers and 921–1,040 sailors. [25] While replenishing supplies, the crew of Admiral Graf Spee built a dummy gun turret on her bridge and erected a dummy second funnel behind the aircraft catapult to alter her silhouette significantly in a bid to confuse allied shipping as to her true identity. [11] Deutschland was ordered to strictly observe prize rules, which required raiders to stop and search ships for contraband before sinking them, and to ensure that their crews are safely evacuated. Lützow was referenced once in the Wehrmachtbericht, an information bulletin issued by the headquarters of the Wehrmacht. Langsdorff assumed this to be the escort for a convoy mentioned in the documents recovered from Tairoa. The Deutschland class armored ship were popularly called "pocket battleships". She was made the flagship of the now Vizeadmiral Kummetz, the commander of Kampfgruppe 2. Deutschland's armored belt was 60 to 80 mm (2.4 to 3.1 in) thick; her upper deck was 17 mm (0.67 in) thick while the main armored deck was 17 to 45 mm (0.67 to 1.77 in) thick. [8] The attack killed 31 German sailors and wounded 74. Two days later, she encountered and sank the merchant ship Ashlea. Unable to accommodate the crew from Huntsman, Admiral Graf Spee sent the ship to a rendezvous location with a prize crew. In late 1939 Deutschland was returning form her first foray into the Atlantic, managing to dodge British patrols in the Denmark strait (despite - or maybe even due to - engine troubles that had her emitting a giant black smoke plume). The torpedo boats Seeadler and Albatross escorted Deutschland to the island of Ibiza on 24 May. [10] The 4,963 gross register tons (GRT) freighter was found to be carrying contraband, and so was seized. Additionally, the Chesneau book has scrap view drawings and side view profiles of … [34] Under Article 17 of the Hague Convention of 1907, neutrality restrictions limited Admiral Graf Spee to a period of 72 hours for repairs in Montevideo, before she would be interned for the duration of the war. The British Admiralty immediately issued a warning to merchant shipping that a German surface raider was in the area. On the night of 5 December, Admiral Graf Spee sank the steamer Tairoa. [10], Severe weather in the North Atlantic hampered Deutschland's raiding mission, though she did tie down several British warships assigned to track her down. [12] On 21 August 1939, Admiral Graf Spee departed Wilhelmshaven, bound for the South Atlantic. [31] At around 07:00, Exeter returned to the engagement, firing from her stern turret. [14] On 26 September, the ship finally received orders authorizing attacks on Allied merchant shipping. Ordered by the Weimar government for the Reichsmarine, she was laid down at the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel in February 1929 and completed by April 1933. Bad weather hampered her efforts, and she only sank or captured a handful of vessels before returning to Germany. Her keel was laid on 5 February 1929, under construction number 219. Built between 1903 and 1908, the ships closely resembled those of the preceding Braunschweig class, though they had stronger armor protection. The Deutschland class was a group of five pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine. Authenticast Comet … [25] The rest of Group 5 remained in Norway,[26] so Lützow cruised at top speed to avoid submarines. [33] Most of the hits scored by the British cruisers caused only minor structural and superficial damage but the oil purification plant, which was required to prepare the diesel fuel for the engines, was destroyed. The Deutschland class, heavy cruisers of the Kriegsmarine are today's subject. The class comprised Deutschland, Hannover, Pommern, Schlesien, and Schleswig-Holstein. ", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1939, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_cruiser_Admiral_Graf_Spee&oldid=1006060275, Military units and formations of Nazi Germany in the Spanish Civil War, World War II shipwrecks in the Atlantic Ocean, World War II shipwrecks in the South Atlantic, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 February 2021, at 20:43. [29] The British detected the German departure and ordered the convoy to scatter. 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